Is there a public list (maintained by the community or by Magento) of all known issues for the different versions?
It seems like a no-brainer that such a list should exist, but at least I'm not aware of any. Thanks for any pointers!
Yes but they're having some maintenance (same with discussion board) so I'm not sure if it's updated recently.
It's working again, you can visit it by clicking through this link:
This list can be sorted by Magento version where bug occured.
If you want to report a new bug:
Release notes exists, but I don't think there is any (community) ran list for all the issues.