That's the point in docker. The stack inside the container (or more accurately built up of several containers) will outcome the same regardless of which OS is used.
That's the main reason why devs use docker. You can build an identical stack to co workers in minutes.
The only difference I've encountered is performance. As soon as you start mounting folders ...
Magento 2.x is not supported Windows OS and Mac OS due security reasons however we can still install Magento 2 on Windows machine using XAMPP tool, but we must fix some known errors after installing on Windows system.
Check this link for more details.