Ensure you are in developer mode. You should not need to run SCD on you local, the files not being there will trigger Magento to symlink the files to the source files so any changes are immediate on refresh.
You can do this using your system.xml file like this one.
<config xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:noNamespaceSchemaLocation="urn:magento:module:Magento_Config:etc/system_file.xsd">
<section id="yoursectionid" sortOrder="150&...
Please make sure you are using composer 1 if not then download composer.phar file and run php composer.phar install and check if it runs smoothly. If this is done then run composer command php composer.phar require [module name] if you want then you can use --no-update followed by your command.
As you got the same PHP version and everything, i guess that you are just missing dependent vendor packages inside the linux docker container? Try composer install command in project root to fix it. Afterwards run the cli command again and it should work.
This is a guess, but maybe it helps! First Magento displays the following commands to the console
Post installation file permissions check...
For security, remove write permissions from these directories: '/var/www/html/magento2/app/etc'
[Progress: 274 / 274]
[SUCCESS]: Magento installation complete.
[SUCCESS]: Admin Panel URI: /admin_xxxxxx
After a ...