Download directory under downloader/pearlib/is really heavy as I've never deleted.
I read on some page that you can empty the contents of this directory.
Is it safe? Or would it cause any problems? Need when uninstalling extensions??
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You do not need the downloader directory to run Magento. If you are not planning to install Magento Connect extensions via downloader, then you can delete the directory.
I personally never deploy the downloader directory. Naturally the downloader implementation allows download, unarchive and installation capabilities. In case of new Magento security vulnerabilities it can be the ideal backdoor. This is of course subjective.
Misread the question, the OP is asking about the exact downloader/pearlib/download directory. This is only used as a temporary location where the downloaded archive is extracted and the files copied to the respective target locations. Thus emptying that folder from time to time is not harmful and will save you disk space.