I need to add additional fields in the website, store and store view, including - store type, store pictures, contact number, store hours, store longitude, and latitude. The Store type will be a drop down list to allow people to choose the type etc. Could someone provide detailed steps for how to make this change?
You can see here an explanation on how to add an extra field when editing a store view. You can do the same for websites and stores.
It involves adding a new column to the store view table and rewriting the admin block so you can add the field.
But I recommend you not to do that.
At least for websites and store views you can use the system->configuration section to add your fields. Alan Storm explains it here nicely how it works and how you can add your configurations and how you can read the values from config.