I have a custom admin url, still I saw someone trying to login into admin.
I even changed it, and shortly after the next login was tried.
How could this happen, I thought its secure?
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There are a handful of ways your admin url can be exposed. Some include
example.com/mymodule_admin/foo/bar. A "safe" admin controller will extend on top of your
example.com/access_logs. An attacker could look through these logs and sniff out promising URLs.
example.com/downloader). Though it's safe behind a login screen, if brute forced an attacker can navigate back to your admin url.
Security through obscurity isn't secure at all. To be safe you should protect your admin interface. This can be done with IP filtering, captchas, rate limits, etc. And, of course, use strong passwords. After all, seeing your admin login screen isn't actually a problem. It's only a problem is an unauthorized user gets in.
The reality is, security by obfuscation nearly never works. I assume it does not even protect you from script kiddies.
But to this case. There are admin modules using their own routes for the admin urls, not using your custom admin url. Payment modules are likely to do this for example(I found 4 of them at our shop).
You can finde some on github with https://github.com/search?p=1&q=AdminController+%22extends+Mage_Adminhtml_Controller_Action%22&ref=searchresults&type=Code&utf8=%E2%9C%93
I assume every controller class not containing
_Adminhtml_ is usable for this.
side note, custom url for admin, but not for /downloader ? just brutforce an admin user there, and you get the admin url from there.
A very nice one is when it appears on similarweb.com because you use a chatty browser-plugin ... (http://www.howtogeek.com/180175/warning-your-browser-extensions-are-spying-on-you/)