What are the requirements for a patch to get accepted and included into magento 1 and what is the best way to provide it.
I think this is the correct url. But there is also How do I report Magento bugs and submit bugfixes so that they are likely to be closed? here in Magento Stack Exchange. I think the question is old and the URL i added here is the way to report issues.
This quesetion is somewhat old and may be outdated :)
In my opinion it's a waste of time to post issues to Magentos (M1) issue tracker. Either it's posted and nothing happens, or they tell "it should be solves in version x.y.z", or they refer to there internal JIRA issue tracker.
So my recommendation to you (:P) is using a well maintained fork that accepts approved bugfixes and improvements - like Magento-LTS does. If you find an issue, just open a ticket there and you can bet it will be included in time.
Even if it didn't answer your question, I hope you could smile a bit about it :)