I do see an answer for Magento 1 but am wondering if this is possible in Magento 2 out of the box or does it require a module?
The title of your question is a bit unclear on whether you are asking about using multiple credit cards or just one credit card.
If you are asking about using one credit card and performing multiple partial captures after authorizing the full amount of the order, it appears that CardConnect can do that.
CardConnect's webpage states that it supports partial captures and partial refunds.
I do not have an answer for using multiple credit cards on a single order and then partially capturing funds.