I have passed the M2 Associate Developer exam recently.
Question can not be remember as they are in multi line and hard to understand. The main point is question understanding. If you understand the question correctly, you get the answer easily.
You can check my profile below:
You can find the complete Exam_Study_Guide on magento website But swiftotter guide is very helpful.
UI modifications: This section will cover question based on block type, XML tags, my account section changes, theme and template hierarchy
database changes: This section will cover question based on sales and quote tables, relationship of products with categories
admin modifications: Admin controller, menu and ACL
customizations: all questions are based on business logic
catalog and checkout structure: all questions are based on business logic
functionality changes: all questions are based on business logic amd ask the best approach