Might be worth giving this module & chrome plugin a try, it could be useful in this scenario:
MageSpecialist MSP Dev Tools
This is a Magento 2 module that, when used in conjunction with a chrome plugin, adds some extra stuff into the chrome dev tools so you can pinpoint where things are coming from (amongst other things!)
Once you've installed the module and the chrome plugin, you can right click on the "Vendor Name: Name" and inspect it, then in the Magento tab in the inspector it should tell you what template it comes from, which will tell you which module it's in (see the usage guide on the link above)
If it's not possible to use this, then you could try disabling each of the custom modules you have installed one by one, clearing the cache and refreshing the cart page after each disable. This will give you an idea of which module is adding the code in.
The other option is to search the codebase for any of the html around the text that appears. Depending on how modules were installed (composer / manual) the code will either be in app/code or vendor/ so you will need to search both places for that html.
You could also look for modules by the files being overridden, so any module containing one or more of these files could be a culprit: