I have a one question.
Maybe, someone have successfully (and using good practices) changed url part to other word.
For example : From #payment to #quote ?
I have found a way.
Each step is registered separately using js. For example payment step is registered there:
Magento_Checkout/web/js/view/payment.js it just enough to change step code in the
stepNavigator.registerStep() method on the line 54.
Currently I haven't seen any issues there. So it should work.