I agree with Christoph's comment that you should not be doing this except through setup scripts.
If you MUST do this, instead of trying to append to your existing database - create a new one and import the entire backup from your local version.
You should always do a backup of your DB before changes like this, so do an export of your DB via SSH:
mysqldump -u(server username) -p (magento_sql_db) > (filename_for_backup).sql
You will be prompted for your server password, then be returned to a new line once the
sqldump is complete.
Once you have the backup
.sql file downloaded locally, delete it from your server. Next you need to export your local
SQL DB to
.sql and upload it to the same directory you downloaded the backup from. Then run this command:
mysql -u(server username) -p (sql_db_being_imported_to) < (local_sql_db_filename).sql
Again, you'll be prompted for password and returned to new line once import is complete. Add the same user and permissions from the original database to this new imported version.
Once you do this, update your
local.xml file to point to this new database and manually flush the cache by deleting the contents of the
/var/cache folder in your magento directory.
Obviously some changes will need to be made, but a lot of those can be mitigated through SQL queries.
I keep this on hand for updating the subdomain for backups of my production to the newest version of staging - when possible, always use a FQDN to prevent cookie issues:
set value = replace(value, 'www', 'staging')
where path in ('web/unsecure/base_url', 'web/secure/base_url',
I'm no SQL expert, but there are plenty of other queries you can run to update information in your table quickly, instead of hunting it down and changing it manually.
This may not be ideal if you have made a lot of other changes in your DB that are untested and should only be used if you really really really need to make manual adjustments to your DB (which you shouldn't)