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What steps do I need to follow to upgrade a demo installation with sample data from Magento 2.1 to the latest 2.2 version?

Instructions that work for Magento Commerce (Enterprise Edition) as well as Open Source (Community Edition) if possible.

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  1. Remove Magento 2.1 sample data modules:

    bin/magento sampledata:remove
    

    If you recieve an authentication error like this:

    [Composer\Downloader\TransportException]                                   
    
    The 'https://repo.magento.com/packages.json' URL required authentication.  
    You must be using the interactive console to authenticate                  
    

    you have to copy your stored credentials for repo.magento.com to var/composer_home because this is the composer home directory for bin/magento commands

    cp ~/.composer/auth.json var/composer_home/
    
  2. Specify new Magento version

    For Open Source (CE):

    composer require magento/product-community-edition 2.2.1 --no-update
    

    For Commerce (EE):

    composer require magento/product-enterprise-edition 2.2.1 --no-update
    

    (Replace 2.2.1 with the current version if there's a newer one)

  3. Update dev requirement versions

    This is necessary if you use the testing tools bundled with Magento. The current required versions can be found here: https://github.com/magento/magento2/blob/2.2/composer.json#L76-L82

    composer require --dev --no-update \
        phpunit/phpunit ~6.2.0 \
        squizlabs/php_codesniffer 3.0.1 \
        pdepend/pdepend 2.5.0 \
        friendsofphp/php-cs-fixer ~2.1.1 \
        lusitanian/oauth ~0.8.10 \
        sebastian/phpcpd 2.0.4
    composer remove --dev --no-update \
        fabpot/php-cs-fixer \
        sjparkinson/static-review
    
  4. Trigger update

    composer update
    
  5. Review file permissions

    You might need to set the correct file permissions again, for example make bin/magento executable:

    chmod +x bin/magento
    

    And give appropiate write permissions to the new generated directory.

    More info: http://devdocs.magento.com/guides/v2.2/install-gde/install/file-sys-perms-over.html

  6. Reinstall sample data

    bin/magento sampledata:deploy
    bin/magento sampledata:reset
    
  7. Upgrade database

    bin/magento setup:upgrade
    
  8. Compilations

    If in production mode, also run the following compilation commands:

    bin/magento setup:di:compile
    bin/magento setup:static-content:deploy
    

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