Is there a way in Magento 2 to check the applied patch status?
Just like we can check the patch status in Magereport in Magento 1?
TL;DR Check the
composer.lock file in Magento 2 to see if the latest version of
magento/product-community-edition is currently installed.
First of all, let me explain that Magereport, and also Magento's own security scan, work from the "outside". These tools fire requests at your Magento installations just like a browser. The guys that have built these tools have found specific tests to run to see if you have applied certain patches, because these patches should have introduced a change in the code viewable from the outside (certain JS code, post requests + response, file accessibility/availability).
Now there are patches that can't be checked from the outside, simply because nothing that was changed is detectable from the outside. So to see if patches are installed, you should go to your installation's source (FTP, SFTP, SSH, Git...) and check it there.
Magento 2 doesn't have patches in the form of patch files, but in the form of new application versions. So there is nowhere to check for "applied patch status" because there are no patches.
If security issues have been detected and patched (solved) by Magento, then they will release new versions of each supported Magento 2 version. At the time of writing, versions 2.0.17, 2.1.11 and 2.2.2 are the latest versions (see release notes 2.0.x, 2.1.x and 2.2.x).
You should check the
composer.json file (or
composer.lock file) in your Magento 2 installation and see which version of the
magento/product-enterprise-edition) is in there to see which version is currently installed.
Magereport portal also provide security patches information for Magento 2.