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Going through some SEO lists and found that magento websites do not provide the proper meta language information in the head on all pages.

Very simple to correct on uni-lingual websites, modify the head.phtml file located in /app/design/frontend/default/YOUR_THEME/template/page/html/

In the meta section add the following (replace en-CA with the correct language of your store):

<meta name="language" content="en-CA" />

To address the issue on a multiluange site I've composed the following code:

<div class="meta-language">

    <?php if($getStreId ==1) :?>
 <meta name="language" content="en-CA" /> 
        <?php endif; ?>
<meta name="language" content="fr-CA" /> 
            </div>

The site id 1 is for Enlish, the other will be French (2 languages).

When I inspect the code with Firebug I see the following:

<meta name="language" content="en-CA" />
<meta name="language" content="fr-CA" />

The expected result was to only see the active language for the meta language tag.

How can the code be modified to only show the active language ?

3

The if statement should also have an else, so it would be something like this

<div class="meta-language">
<?php if($getStreId ==1) :?>
   <meta name="language" content="en-CA" /> 
<?php else:    
   <meta name="language" content="fr-CA" /> 
<?php endif;?>
</div>

however there shouldn't be a <div> in the <head> section of your HTML. So you might want to drop that.

Also, there's not really a need to edit the head.phtml to add the <meta> tag. You can add the following to your local.xml

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<layout>
    <STORE_encastorecode>
       <default>
          <reference name="head">
              <block type="core/text" name="meta_language">
                 <action method="setText"><text><meta name="language" content="en-CA" /> </text></action>
              </block>
          </reference>
       </default>
    </STORE_encastorecode>
    <STORE_frcastorecode>
       <default>
          <reference name="head">
              <block type="core/text" name="meta_language">
                 <action method="setText"><text><meta name="language" content="fr-CA" /> </text></action>
              </block>
          </reference>
       </default>
    </STORE_frcastorecode>
</layout>

Just make sure you add the right storeview code to the <STORE> tag

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