I download magento 2 and install on my machine. I didn't use composer. There is any way to install de security patch without using composer?
The Magento2 download packages include all of the composer initialization data (composer.json and composer.lock). That means you can use composer even if you didn't actually install with it.
Specifically, these two commands:
composer require magento/product-enterprise-edition 2.1.7 --no-update composer update
...will have Composer download and unpack the latest version for you (2.1.7 being the latest release at time of writing). There are some other steps to complete the upgrade once you've done that: Clear cache/generated files, run the setup process, run compilation. The guide walks you through it, or your site itself will too.
You can also upgrade directly from the Magento Admin Panel using the web setup wizard. It's a bit slower, but it does work as long as it has sufficient permissions. http://docs.magento.com/m2/ce/user_guide/system/web-setup-wizard.html