Yes, one of the biggest problems with running varnish on a Magento 1.x site was the fact that the cart page would be auto-magically cached. So if I was the first person to add something to my cart, the next person who added something (different) to their cart would see what I added. (Unless you specifically told varnish via the VCL to bypass the cart and checkout pages.)
Same thing can happen on a catalog search page result - the filterable navigation on the left hand side of a normal search results page can easily be cached.
Using a default Luma theme on Magento 2.1, here's a sample URL:
Here's a screenshot of the results:
On a page like this, you have the left navigation that can open or close, sort by (relevance, price), or the grid view vs. list view, items per page.