Is it possible to move settings like product, customers and categories attributes, store settings and others that doesn't include data
- product, customers, orders, categories, etc ...
Instead of having to move the DB from dev or testing
You could build a small custom module with a Setup script (an
UpgradeData.php) script that does all these via code (see forexample http://inchoo.net/magento-2/setup-scripts-magento-2/).
You could set config values, create/update whole attribute sets, create websites, store groups and store views, create CMS blocks, etc...
We use this method within dev teams so everyone will have the same setup without ever having to exchange database dumps. Also this makes it available under your version control system (GIT) and it distributes easily further down the road (testing env, uat env and production env).