We run on multiple c1.medium instances that are auto-scaled with a m1.db.small RDS instance, cache.t1.micro ElastiCache server for full page caching and CloudFront CDN served from two S3 sources (one for media, one for skin/js for more concurrent downloads per session). We use S3FS for EC2 instances to connect to the S3s. In addition, we use Lightspeed (now called Warp) full page caching, some custom block caching and Fooman Speedster Advanced.
We recently made some changes and found with the S3 system you need to set some symbolic links to expedite the process of PHP's
file_exists function when a file is not present in a directory for the skin folder. With that set up, we are getting page load times under 1 second (cached) and 2-3 seconds not cached.
I like the c1.medium because the cost (we usually run spot instances at <$0.07/hr...unless it's Christmas time). Also, the compute optimized helps with the speed of processing all of the requests. With memory levels set correctly in php.ini, we haven't run into memory problems on that instance.
You do more traffic than we do, but caching is still the key. If you want to spend a little more, the current gen c3.large instances look enticing. They offer good computing power, decent memory, and SSD storage!
Be sure to set up any file system caching (like the cache for S3FS) on a local ephemeral drive to speed disk reads (and save money). With the setup I described, the disk read shouldn't be the bottleneck because most data is coming from ElastiCache for the full page and CloudFront/S3 for media.
I also highly recommend using a profiler to find and reduce bottlenecks. That is how we lowered non-cached page speeds from 6 to 2 seconds because of the
file_exists function and symlinks.
To answer the other part of your question...I'm not sure the VPC would help much, except to block bad bots/DNS attempts before they hit your servers. Unless you have a ton of bad traffic, that shouldn't make a huge difference.
This reply gets a decent amount of traffic and I've been getting some messages asking for help. Since the original post was over three years ago, I don't remember all the details from back then. Here's my current setup (pretty much scroll through the AWS menu and add one or two of everything):
- c3.large front-end servers running Apache (these work great for Magento and are relatively inexpensive)
- smaller back-end servers for API and admin
- Amazon EFS for shared media storage (just implemented, but good so far)
- CloudFront pointing to web servers for source
- No more full page caching (it wasn't giving enough speed enhancement
to make up for the pain of hole-punching and dealing with added
dynamic content on pages)
- ElastiCache for caches and sessions
- AWS Elasticsearch Service for searches
- RDS server for database
My current project is implementing scripts to ban IPs that are requesting too many pages or bad URLs (almost all of which are originating from Russia and Ukraine). These can be >1000 requests/minute and cause major problems on several levels. I'm looking at using something similar to this fail2ban to Network ACL project. Speaking of malicious requests...ALWAYS move your admin folder to a different location that
/admin/ and set up
/downloader/.htaccess to deny all but your IP. Those are the two main URLs that these guys hit and the server load of them nailing those pages can cripple your server set up fast.
I feel that this site is not really small, but nowhere near large. There are components that should be different depending on catalog size and traffic levels and the probability of traffic spikes. The nice part is that you can set something like this up for around $100/mo, then scale quickly and easily by looking at loads from different services and add capacity where it is needed.