Answer to your question is definitely no, there is no
customer_logged_in handle anymore, I've digged into the code and could not find any layout handle that could do the trick.
On top of that under
\dev\tests\static\testsuite\Magento\Test\Legacy\LayoutTest.php you can find the following code:
* List of obsolete nodes
* @var array
protected $_obsoleteNodes = [
Which to me, clearly tells us that the
customer_logged_in layout handle is obsolete now.
See Fabian's answer for explanations about how it is done now in Magento 2.